Brazil is a prominent country in both paper and cellulose production market. The pulp and paper industries continue to grow in the country, with different types of material being produced in Brazil and other countries around the world.
Paper is a material made from wood, from which cellulose fibers are extracted. These fibers are converted into the final product after going through the production process.
This production process goes through several stages. First, the logs reach the industry, where they are cut, go through a debarker and chipper, and come out in the form of chips.
Then the chips are added to a digester, and at this stage, they are cooked in a liquid with water and chemical agents. As a result, we have cellulose pulp, which will undergo washing to remove impurities.
Afterwards, the pulp goes through the bleaching process, in which the cellulose is separated from other residues. Next, the cellulose pulp goes to the flat table, which transforms this wet pulp into a large, continuous, smooth sheet.
In order to remove excess water, pressure rollers are used, which make the paper smooth and with the correct texture. Finally, it is time to cut, pack and distribute the paper to the final customer.
Throughout this process, there are details that will differentiate each existing type of paper. Do you know what types of paper exist? Keep following the text and find out!
Types of cellulose
There are 3 types of cellulose, which are used in the production of different types of paper.
Long fiber cellulose:
It is cellulose that results in a final product with greater resistance, being indicated for the production of packaging, newsprint, toilet paper, filters, and napkins. In Brazil, this cellulose is extracted from pine trees (pinus).
Short fiber cellulose:
On the other hand, short-fiber cellulose is ideal for manufacturing printing and writing paper, as well as tissue paper. This type of cellulose results in less resistance but provides high softness and absorption to the paper produced. This cellulose is extracted from eucalyptus and is the most abundant in Brazil.
This is a newer type of pulp, which has been produced in Brazil since 2015 from long pine fiber. Before that, Brazil needed to import 100% of this type of cellulose. The materials made with this type of cellulose are disposable and incontinence absorbents, children’s and adult diapers, daily protectors, wet wipes, etc.
Paper produced with this type of pulp has low shredding energy, high absorption capacity and speed, liquid retention, and uniformity.
Types of paper:
Today, the pulp and paper industry is much more developed than it was in the past. Therefore, there are different types of paper produced, and as the demand for different materials appears, new products are created.
It is a simple and inexpensive type of paper, with lower strength and durability compared to the others listed below. It is typically a darker, rougher, with lighter weight, which is made from mechanical cellulose pulp.
This pulp contains impurities that are not removed, and therefore it is an inferior quality paper. Due to these characteristics, it is an ideal type of paper for newspapers, magazines, and cheap promotional brochures.
Offset is a type of paper produced with chemical cellulose pulp and a large amount of glue. In other words, 100% of the cellulose is bleached, in addition to having good glue aspects and being coated, which makes it practically immune to humidity. It is used in higher-quality books, magazines, posters, and brochures.
It is a paper that can be compared to sulphite, but offset has higher quality and weight, ranging between 56g and 240g, but the 90g and 120g weights are the most popular.
Sulphite paper, like offset paper, is produced with bleached chemical cellulose pulp. In addition, the material has low harshness and is, therefore, a good choice for notebooks, envelopes, and forms.
This is the kind of paper people have at home, in their packs of 100 or 500 sheets, and it’s the best-selling paper on the market.
The production cost is low when compared to other types of paper, which justifies the choice of this material for school and office activities.
It is paper made from chemical pulp, and there is also a layer of glue and coating. Normally, offset paper goes through a coating step so that this new type of paper has a smooth and even surface. Consequently, these aspects give a more noble appearance to the material.
As there are matte, semi-matte, and glossy options, it is widely used in brochures, magazine catalogs, folders, flyers, business cards, invitations, and more expensive book spines. At the time of printing, the ink remains on the surface layer of the paper, which gives the print an outstanding appearance.
This paper is produced with long-fiber chemical pulp, but it can be mixed with mechanical pulp. Therefore, it becomes a highly resistant paper, which makes it possible to use it for bags, packaging, and boxes.
The natural color of kraft paper is brown, but it is also possible to find it in white. The brown color is due to the absence of a whitening process during manufacture.
Kraft paper can also be used in the manufacturing process of another type of paper: corrugated cardboard.
Duplex Cardboard Paper
As the name already characterizes, this type of paper has two stages of composition. The first layer is of higher quality, being similar to coated paper. This layer is therefore produced from chemical pulp and coating.
The second layer, on the other hand, is produced with mixed pulp, and is heavier to add strength to the paper. This is commonly used for cartridge packaging, boxes, folders, and calendars.
Finally, we come to corrugated paper, which is also composed of two elements. A corrugated sheet is the core for two layers of flat sheets. This type of paper is produced with mixed pulp, with lower quality and yellowish color. However, it has high strength, which is why it is used for transport packaging, especially for fragile materials such as glass.
Paper: versatile and important everyday material
As you noticed, paper is a material with several applications, which is possible because there are several types of this product on the market.
Even with the internet and digital media taking over people’s lives, paper is still present in everyone’s daily routines. And if you pay attention, you’ll notice that paper is used all the time around you.
What paper do you use most at home or in the office? Share in the comments!